What is it?
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a surveillance technology incorporating air and ground aspects that provide Air Traffic Control (ATC) with a more accurate picture of the aircraft's 3-dimensional position in the enroute, terminal, approach and surface environments.
ADS-B consists of two different services, ADS-B Out and ADS-B In. ADS-B Out periodically broadcasts information about each aircraft, including identification, position, altitude, velocity and more. ADS-B In is the reception by aircraft of Flight Information Services (FIS-B) and Traffic Information Services (TIS-B) data, and other ADS-B data from nearby aircraft.
Why do I need it?
ADS-B Out mandates are currently being planned and implemented worldwide, affecting almost all aircraft operators.
In the United States, this includes:
- Class A, B and C
- Class E airspace within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface
- Class E airspace at and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 NM
- Around those airports identified in 14 CFR Part 91 Appendix D
In addition to the United States, many other countries such as Europe and Australia are planning their own ADS-B requirements.
What do I need?
An example of the minimum required equipment to support ADS-B Out for FAA approval includes:
- Extended Squitter Mode S Transponder
- System Failure Annunciations
- TSO-C146c Approved Flight Management System (FMS)
In FAR 91.227 published in August 2010, the FAA requires that ADS-B Out transmission or receiving equipment to be approved using either TSO-C154c (Universal Access Transceiver) or TSO-C166b (1090Mhz Extended Squitter Transponder). Extended Squitter Mode S Transponder equipment compliant with TSO-C166b will be required to operate in the Class A airspace in accordance with FAR 91.225, whereas Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) is designed for low altitude operations. FAA AC 20-165A covers the Airworthiness Approvals for ADS-B Out systems. The AC also covers both of the acceptable types of equipment mentioned.
TSO-C146 is not mandated by FAR 91.227, and some TSO-C129 GPS systems may be able to provide rule compliance performance. However, the rule is a Performance Based rule, and the most reliable way of meeting it without being affected by inadequate performance is by having a TSO-C146/C145 sensor.
When do I need it?
Mandated compliance to ADS-B technology is growing. Airworthiness agencies worldwide have issued rules and requirements pertaining to ADS-B equipage. In the United States, the FAA has strictly mandated ADS-B Out by January 1, 2020, unless you can obtain exemption to the rule from the FAA. This will require a compliance plan by the organization requesting the rule exemption, and can be very difficult to achieve. In other countries, ADS-B Out may be mandated even earlier than 2020.
According to the FAA, at the end of the 2014 fiscal year, only 10% of the general aviation fleet was equipped for ADS-B Out. That means that the longer you wait to install, the larger backlog you'll face as the deadline approaches. With the U.S. mandate less than 5 years away, now is the time to upgrade to have flexibility and avoid the installation traffic and increased downtime.
In addition to avoiding the pitfalls of procrastinating, installation of ADS-B Out already offers many benefits. The FAA now allows such aircraft to fly overwater routes over the Gulf of Mexico and off the U.S. East Coast. Benefits are also available over Canada's Hudson Bay area, and in many Asian countries ADS-B is already required in certain areas. In addition to increased coverage, aircraft that are currently equipped for ADS-B Out also realize improved situational awareness and safety, and reduced separation between aircraft.
Aircraft that do not have the required performance will either be excluded from airspace or segregated and provided services when Air Traffic Control (ATC) can accommodate them.
In 2010, the FAA issued a new rule contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 91, §§ 91.225 and 91.227. This rule requires ADS-B Out performance when operating in designated classes of airspace within the NAS after January 1, 2020.
AMC 20-24 mandates ADS-B Out in production in January 2015 and for entire European airspace (retrofit) by December 2017. ADS-B approval for non-radar coverage areas requires new transponder standard RTCA DO-260B. AMC 20-24 states DO-260A transponder is sufficient, however Universal Avionics has found that EASA may establish the certification baseline via CRI and require the DO-260B transponder regardless of the existing AMC 20-24. ADS-B in radar coverage areas can be accomplished with a DO-260A transponder.
- Transport Canada Advisory Circular (AC) No. 700-009 Issue 2
- EASA AMC 20-24
- Guidance material: CAO 20.18, Amend Order No. 3, dated December 2009
- Mandates ADS-B Out for upper airspace (at or above FL290) in December 2013
- Guidance material: Airworthiness Notice 102F, Issue 2, 28 February 2011
- Implement the use of ADS-B Out:
- After 31 December 2013 for aircraft flying over PBN routes L642 or M771 between FL290 and FL410
- After 31 December 2014 for aircraft flying within Hong Kong FIR between FL290 and FL410
- Must meet DO-260 (Version 0) requirements of ICAO Annex 10 and ICAO Doc 9871 Chapter 2, or DO-260A (Version 1) requirements of
ICAO Doc 9871 Chapter 3
- Means of compliance per EASA AMC 20-24 or CASA CAO 20.18 Appendix XI
- Guidance material: CAAS AIC 14, 28 December 2010
- Implement the use of ADS-B Out after 12 December 2013 within certain parts of the Singapore FIR (at or above FL290)
- Must meet EASA AMC 20-24 or CASA CAO 20.18 Appendix XI, otherwise must fly at <FL290
Other Asia Pacific Regulatory Agencies
- Expected to follow ADS-B Avionics Requirements template per APANPIRG Conclusion 21/39
- Template states: Must meet EASA AMC 20-24 or CASA CAO 20.18 Appendix XI